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3-D Printing


[From Wikipedia]:

3D printing is a form of additive manufacturing technology where a three dimensional object is created by laying down successive layers of material.[1]

3D printers are generally faster, more affordable and easier to use than other additive manufacturing technologies.

3D printers offer product developers the ability to print parts and assemblies made of several materials

with different mechanical and physical properties in a single build process.

Advanced 3D printing technologies yield models that closely emulate the look, feel and functionality of product prototypes.

A 3D printer works by taking a 3D computer file and using and making a series of cross-sectional slices.

Each slice is then printed one on top of the other to create the 3D object.

Since 2003 there has been large growth in the sale of 3D printers.

Additionally, the cost of 3D printers has declined.[2]

The technology also finds use in the jewellery, footwear, industrial design, architecture,

engineering and construction (AEC), automotive, aerospace, dental and medical industries.

===>  [More]:

The 3-D Printing Revolution - (14-3/4 min. - YouTube audio/video) - November 2011 TED Talk presentation.  2012 may be the year of 3-D printing, when this three-decade-old technology finally becomes accessible and even commonplace. Lisa Harouni gives a useful introduction to this fascinating way of making things -- including intricate objects once impossible to create.  -

Inside Makerbot: the Future of 3D Printing?

 ...harbinger of a major sea change? :

Online videos & more of 3-D printing in action:

Replacing Body Parts

(13-1/2 min. video  -  NOVA ScienceNOW - January 26, 2011)

[The last 30-seconds of this science video shows a beating heart

that has been ink-jet 3-D printed from living cells!!!]



'Printing out' new ears and skin

February 21, 2011

By Jason Palmer and Matt Danzico

BBC News, Washington DC

The next step in the 3D printing revolution

may be body parts

including cartilage, bone and even skin.

Three-dimensional printing is a technique

for making solid objects with devices not unlike a computer printer,

building up line by line, and then vertically layer by layer.

While the approach works with polymers and plastics,

the raw ingredients of 3D printing

have been recently branching out significantly.

The printers have been co-opted even to make foods,

and do-it-yourself biology experiments dubbed "garage biotech"

-- and has most recently been employed

to repair a casting of Rodin's sculpture The Thinker

that was damaged in a botched robbery.

But at the annual meeting of the
American Association for the Advancement of Science
 in Washington DC,
 the buzzword is bioprinting:

 using the same technique
 to artfully knock out new body parts.

3-D Printing Method Advances Electrically Small Antenna Design

3-D Printing Produces A Full-working Bicycle!

The World’s Smallest 3-D Printer

Adjustable Wrench
3-D Printed
(4-1/2 min. - YouTube audio/video)

Print Your Own Teeth: Rapid Prototyping Comes to Dentistry - ScienceDaily (July 14, 2011) — What if, instead of waiting days or weeks for a cast to be produced and prosthetic dental implants, false teeth and replacement crowns to be made, your dentist could quickly scan your jaw and "print" your new teeth using a rapid prototyping machine known as a 3D printer?  -

3-D printing: The world's first printed plane

Reproduce yourself with a 3-D printer

The world's first '3-D printed' car - and it actually works

3D Printers Will Build Circuit Boards

Creepy 3D-printed robot spider

3-D Printer Used to Make Bone-Like Material - ScienceDaily (Nov. 29, 2011) — It looks like bone.  It feels like bone.  For the most part, it acts like bone.

And it came off an inkjet printer.

Washington State University researchers have used a 3-D printer to create a bone-like material and structure that can be used in orthopedic procedures, dental work and to deliver medicine for treating osteoporosis. Paired with actual bone, it acts as a scaffold for new bone to grow on and ultimately dissolves with no apparent ill effects.

The authors report on successful in vitro tests in the journal Dental Materials and say they're already seeing promising results with in vivo tests on rats and rabbits. It's possible that doctors will be able to custom order replacement bone tissue in a few years, said Susmita Bose, co-author and professor in WSU's School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.

"If a doctor has a CT scan of a defect, we can convert it to a CAD file and make the scaffold according to the defect," Bose said.  -

NASA Looks to 3-D Printing for Spare Parts for Space Station

Uncannily Realistic ATM Skimmer Could Be from 3-D Printer

Printing A Human Kidney

Transplant Jaw Made By 3-D Printer Claimed As First

3-D Printer Makes Customized Cookies - (3-3/4 min. - video) - (January 23, 2012 - Wired) - The researchers at Cornell University have been cooking up a new appliance for your home -- a 3-D food printer. They've been experimenting with all kinds of goo, including cheese, cookie dough and liquid turkey.

3-D Micro-Printing: Polymer Scientists and Physicists, Inspired by Curly Leaves, Develop New Technique for Shaping Thin Gel Sheets - ScienceDaily (Mar. 8, 2012) — Inspired by nature's ability to shape a petal, and building on simple techniques used in photolithography and printing, researchers at the University of Massachusetts Amherst have developed a new tool for manufacturing three-dimensional shapes easily and cheaply, to aid advances in biomedicine, robotics and tunable micro-optics.  -

3-D Printer With Nano-Precision - ScienceDaily (Mar. 12, 2012) — Printing three-dimensional objects with incredibly fine details is now possible using "two-photon lithography." With this technology, tiny structures on a nanometer scale can be fabricated. Researchers at the Vienna University of Technology (TU Vienna) have now made a major breakthrough in speeding up this printing technique: The high-precision-3D-printer at TU Vienna is orders of magnitude faster than similar devices. This opens up completely new areas of application, such as in medicine.  -

The Solidoodle: A 3D Printer For Everyone

Future Tech: How 3D Printing Will Change The World - (May 9, 2012 - by Dennis Draeger - AlterNet) - From new iPhone cases to new body parts, here's the good, the bad and the grotesque of this new technology.  -

Vending Machine That Prints In 3-D

Can 3D Printers Reshape The World? - (23-1/2 min. - audio) - (June 22, 2012 - Science Friday/NPR) - What if you needed a new toothbrush and all you had to do was hit print? What if doctors could print out transplantable organs and pastry chefs turned to a printer, not a kitchen, for their next creation? Ira Flatow and a panel of guests discuss 3D printing technology, how far it's come and what a 3D-printed-future could look like.  -

Printable, Electrically Conductive Gel With Unprecedented Electrical Performance Synthesized - ScienceDaily (July 4, 2012) — Stanford researchers have invented an electrically conductive gel that is quick and easy to make, can be patterned onto surfaces with an inkjet printer and demonstrates unprecedented electrical performance.

The material, created by Stanford chemical engineering Associate Professor Zhenan Bao, materials science and engineering Associate Professor Yi Cui and members of their labs, is a kind of conducting hydrogel -- a jelly that feels and behaves like biological tissues, but conducts electricity like a metal or semiconductor.

That combination of characteristics holds enormous promise for biological sensors and futuristic energy storage devices, but has proven difficult to manufacture until now.  -

Paintable Batteries
Spray-On Power
To Any Surface

(1-1/2 min. - YouTube audio/video)

New Stereolithography High-Res 3-D Printers

Portable 3-D Printers Have Arrived




Giant 3-D Printer Can Construct A House In 20 Hours!

PayPal Founder Backs Synthetic Meat Printing Company - (August 16, 2012 - by Duncan Geere - Wired/UK) - The Thiel Foundation has made a six-figure grant to a series of biotechnology startups, including a company that wants to 3-D-print meat.

Modern Meadow is a Missouri-based startup that believes 3-D printing could help to take some of the environmental cost out of producing a hamburger. He said: “If you look at the resource intensity of everything that goes into a hamburger, it is an environmental train wreck.”

The company claims that by carefully layering mixtures of cells of different types in a specific structure, in-vitro meat production becomes feasible. It’s set a short-term goal of printing a sliver of meat around two centimeters by one centimeter, and less than half a millimeter thick, which is edible.

The company explains in a submission to the United States Department of Agriculture: “The technology has several advantages in comparison to earlier attempts to engineer meat in vitro. The bio-ink particles can be reproducibly prepared with mixtures of cells of different type. Printing ensures consistent shape, while post-printing structure formation and maturation in the bioreactor facilitates conditioning.”  -

3D Printers Tell You When Your Design Will Fail

Nanoengineers Can Print 3-D Microstructures In Mere Seconds

New Tool Gives Structural Strength To 3-D Printed Works

Embracing 3-D Printers, Manufacturer Tells Customers To Print Their Own Replacement Parts

Shapeways 3D Printing
(1-1/2 min. - YouTube audio/video)

3D-Printable Headphones

The New MakerBot Replicator Might Just Change Your World - (Sept. 9, 2012 - by Chris Andersson - Wired) - You might think of 3-D printing as bleeding-edge technology, relevant only to geeks or high-end design workshops. But you may have encountered a 3-D printer already, in circumstances so prosaic you didn’t even notice.

Let’s start at the dentist’s office. Many custom dental fittings are now 3-D printed—like the series of mouth guards, each slightly different from the last, that are used to change tooth alignment over months. After a dental technician scans the current position of the teeth, all positions intermediate to the desired end point are modeled by software and then printed out in plastic. Also, if you’re lucky enough to have a dentist who can replace a crown in a single sitting, it’s because models are 3-D printed and then the replacement teeth are milled right there in the office.

…. Practically every consumer item or electronic gadget you own has been prototyped on a 3-D printer; ditto for the newer buildings around you. ….

Commercial 3-D printing works with only a few dozen types of materials, mostly metals and plastics, but more are in the works. Researchers are experimenting with exotic “inks” that range from wood pulp to sugar. Some devices can extrude liquid foods, like cupcake icing and melted chocolate. Soon we’ll be able to print electric circuits, potentially making complex electronics from scratch.


A home 3-D printer is fun. The concept of a home 3-D printer, though, is the beginning of a new industrial revolution. ….

So once you have a design on your computer, you can prototype a single copy on your desktop fabricator—or upload it to a commercial manufacturing service and generate thousands.  ….  Modern CAD software like the free Autodesk 123D even offers wizards to make it simple to go from one copy to many. ….  -

Craig Venter Imagines A World With Printable Life Forms - (Oct. 16, 2012 - by Daniela Hernandez - Wired Science) - Craig Venter imagines a future where you can download software, print a vaccine, inject it, and presto! Contagion averted.

“It’s a 3-D printer for DNA, a 3-D printer for life,” Venter said here today at the inaugural Wired Health Conference in New York City.

The geneticist and his team of scientists are already testing out a version of his digital biological converter, or “teleporter.”  -

Spice Up Your 3-D Prints With Custom Plastics




US Military Gets Into 3-D Printing

3-D Printed
 Bras And Guitars

(4 min. - video)

3D-Printed Rockets Help Propel NASA’s Space Launch System

Best 3D-Printed Objects In Entertainment, Science And War

3-D Printing Branches Out With New Wood-Based Filament

Engineers Pave The Way Towards 3-D Printing Of Personal Electronics

Hybrid 3-D Printer Used To Create Cartilage Implants

Portable And Affordable: New 3-D Printers That Cost Less Than $500

3D-Print Circuits With Innovative Conductive Plastic

Moon-Based 3-D Printers Could Create Tools From Lunar Dust

Next Year’s 3-D Printers Promise Big ThingsReally Big Things

3D Print Yourself Something Big, Piece By Piece

3-D Printed Satellite Aims For Orbit

Harvard’s 3D-Printing Archaeologists Fix Ancient Artifacts

Autodesk Developing CAD Software To Design, 3-D Print Living Tissue

3D Printing A Bicycle

(9-3/4 min. - YouTube audio/video)




A Primer On
3D Printing

(14-3/4 min. - YouTube audio/video)

3D Printing
(6-3/4 min. - YouTube audio/video)

Robot-assisted 3D Printer Aids March Of The Machines - (Jan. 22, 2013 - by Paul Marks, chief technology correspondent - NewScientist) - While some 3D printers can make many of the parts needed to make a copy of themselves, most need human help to assemble the final product. Not for much longer: machines could soon be making machines if Roomba maker iRobot gets its way.

The Bedford, Massachusetts, firm has filed a US patent on a way to rid 3D printers of the need for pesky humans, allowing robots to do all the post-printing work to make a complete product. ….

Enter iRobot's do-it-all robotic fabricator, comprising a twin-armed robot allied with a 3D printer, a milling machine and a drill, all on one platform. The platform is peppered with sensors so that a computer can choreograph all stages of manufacture, using the additive technique of 3D printing or the subtractive ones of milling and drilling, as needed. Both robot arms have dextrous grippers with six degrees of freedom, so one can hold a newly 3D-printed piece while the other secures another piece to it with glue, connectors or fasteners.

"Since no human intervention is used product design is simpler and production is more efficient," claim the inventors. It's clear is that if anyone thought 3D printers might spawn a new wave of employment they had better think again: it looks like any such benefit could be short-lived.  -

Space-miners To Crush Asteroids And 3D Print Satellites



Open Source, Powder-Based 3-D Printer Has Full-Color Potential

3D-Printed Cyborg Muscle Produces Artificial Heartbeat



An Artificial Ear Built By A 3D Printer And Living Cartilage Cells


(2-1/2 min. - YouTube audio/video)

Will 3D Printing
Change The World

(7 min. - YouTube audio/video)

Print Your Own Medicine - (3 min. - YouTube audio/video) - (Feb. 7, 2013 - TEDtalks) - Chemist Lee Cronin is working on a 3D printer that, instead of objects, is able to print molecules. An exciting potential long-term application: printing your own medicine using chemical inks.  -

Patient Has 75% Of His Skull Replaced With 3D-Printed Implant



3-D Printer, 'Bio-Ink' To Create Human Organs



Open-Sourcing Outer Space: 3-D Printing Meets Rocket Science

Printable Functional 'Bionic' Ear Melds Electronics And Biology - May 1, 2013 — Scientists at Princeton University used off-the-shelf printing tools to create a functional ear that can "hear" radio frequencies far beyond the range of normal human capability.

The researchers' primary purpose was to explore an efficient and versatile means to merge electronics with tissue. The scientists used 3D printing of cells and nanoparticles followed by cell culture to combine a small coil antenna with cartilage, creating what they term a bionic ear.  -

What Lies Ahead For 3-D Printing? - (May 2013 - By Elizabeth Royte - Smithsonian magazine) - The new technology promises a factory in every homeand a whole lot more  -

3D Printing Food
(3-1/2 min. - YouTube audio/video)

3D Printing
Mechanical Hands

(10-1/4 min. - YouTube audio/video)

Tiny Batteries: 3-D Printing Could Lead To Miniaturized Medical Implants, Compact Electronics, Tiny Robots - June 18, 2013 — Three-dimensional printing can now be used to print lithium-ion microbatteries the size of a grain of sand.  -

3D Printed
Spider Octopod Robot

(1-3/4 min. - YouTube audio/video)

Desktop Printing At The Nano Level - July 19, 2013 — A new low-cost, high-resolution tool is primed to revolutionize how nanotechnology is produced from the desktop, according to a new study by Northwestern University researchers.  -


Gives Man

A New Face

(2 min. - YouTube audio/video)



3D-Printed Guitar

First Sound Test

(2 min. - YouTube audio/video)



3D-Printed Gear Bearing

(2 min. - YouTube audio/video)




Flexible Woven Cups

(1-1/2 min. - YouTube audio/video)

3-D Printing: The Greener Choice - Oct. 3, 2013 — 3D printing isn't just cheaper, it's also greener, says Michigan Technological University's Joshua Pearce.

Even Pearce, an aficionado of the make-it-yourself-and-save technology, was surprised at his study's results. It showed that making stuff on a 3D printer uses less energy -- and therefore releases less carbon dioxide -- than producing it en masse in a factory and shipping it to a warehouse.


Pearce's group found that making the items on a basic 3D printer took from 41 percent to 64 percent less energy than making them in a factory and shipping them to the U.S.  -

Need Different Types Of Tissue? Just Print Them! - Oct. 24, 2013 — What sounds like a dream of the future has already been the subject of research for a few years: simply printing out tissue and organs. Now scientists have further refined the technology and are able to produce various tissue types.  -

3-D Printing Hits Fast Lane: Engineers Cut Time To 3-D-Print Heterogeneous Objects From Hours To Minutes - Nov. 20, 2013 — Researchers at the USC Viterbi School of Engineering have developed a faster 3D printing process and are now using it to model and fabricate heterogeneous objects, which comprise multiple materials.  -

Loudspeaker Is First-Ever 3-D-Printed Consumer Electronic - Dec. 16, 2013 — Cornell University researchers have 3D printed a working loudspeaker, seamlessly integrating the plastic, conductive and magnetic parts, and ready for use almost as soon as it comes out of the printer.

It's an achievement that 3D printing evangelists feel will soon be the norm; rather than assembling consumer products from parts and components, complete functioning products could be fabricated at once, on demand.  -

Robot Arms To Help Knit Replacement Human Body Parts




Squeezing Light Into Metals: Engineers Control Conductivity With Inkjet Printer - (March 7, 2014 - University of Utah) - Using an inexpensive inkjet printer, electrical engineers produced microscopic structures that use light in metals to carry information. This new technique, which controls electrical conductivity within such microstructures, could be used to rapidly fabricate superfast components in electronic devices, make wireless technology faster or print magnetic materials.  -

3-D Printing Is Getting Huge Hype, But It Could Be One Massive Health Risk - (September 23, 2014 - by Valerie Brown - AlterNet)  - A study found the machines can emit high levels of ultrafine particles whose biological behavior and health effects are unknown.  -

The Basics of 3D Printing



Why 3D Printing Is The Future - (Infographic)



What You Can Do With A 3D Printer - (Infographic)

A Brief History of 3D Printing - (Infographic)

3-D printed parts provide low-cost, custom alternatives for lab equipment



Remarkable Advances In Electrical & Computer Engineering - (Infographic)

Call to change recycling standards as 3-D printing expands




Highly Conductive Material for 3D-printing of Circuits - (May 14, 2015 - The Agency for Science, Technology and Research) - New material is 1,000 times more conductive than commercially available materials currently on the market.  -

App Lets Anyone 3-D Print ‘Do-Not-Duplicate’ Keys



Lockpickers 3-D Print TSA Master Luggage Keys From Leaked Photos - (Sept. 9, 2015 - Andy Greenberg - Wired) - The TSA is learning a basic lesson of physical security in the age of 3-D printing: If you have sensitive keyssay, a set of master keys that can open locks you’ve asked millions of Americans to usedon’t post pictures of them on the Internet.

A group of lock-picking and security enthusiasts drove that lesson home Wednesday by publishing a set of CAD files to Github that anyone can use to 3-D print a precisely measured set of the TSA’s master keys for its “approved” locks—the ones the agency can open with its own keys during airport inspections. Within hours, at least one 3-D printer owner had already downloaded the files, printed one of the master keys, and published a video proving that it opened his TSA-approved luggage lock.  -

3-D Printed Windpipe Improves Girl's Operation



Researchers hack off-the-shelf 3-D printer towards rebuilding the heart - (October 23, 2015 - Carnegie Mellon University - ScienceDaily) - Researchers have used a new 3-D bioprinting method to bioprint models of hearts, arteries, bones and brains out of biological materials. The work could one day lead to a world in which transplants are no longer necessary to repair damaged organs.  -

3-D printing method for creating patient-specific medical devices



3-D Printed 'Building Blocks' Of Life - (November 3, 2015 - Institute of Physics - ScineceDaily) - Scientists have developed a 3-D printing method capable of producing highly uniform 'blocks' of embryonic stem cells. These cells -- capable of generating all cell types in the body -- could be used as the 'Lego bricks' to build tissue constructs, larger structures of tissues, and potentially even micro-organs.  -

This Is The First Object 3D-printed From Alien Metal - (Photos)

Mind-Blowing 3D-PrintedMagic Magnets’ - (Video)

Autodesk’s 3D-PrintingProject Escher’ - (Video)

The Next Rembrandt’ - (3D-Printed Painting) - (Video)

Presenting Oscar, The Modular Body - (Video)

Is Cornelis Vlasman’s 3D-Printed Modular Body Real? - (Videos)

Teacher 3D Prints New Webbed Feet For Phillip The Duck - (Video)

MIT ResearchersCreate 3D-Printed Hair - (Video)

Scientists 3D-Print Cameras The Size Of A Grain Of Salt - (Photo)

Introducing FarmBot Genesis - (Video)

The Future Of 3-D Printing - (Video)

The First Autonomous, Entirely Soft 3-D Printed Robot - (Photo)

Promising biomaterial to build better bones with 3-D printing



3D-Printed Metamaterial Mechanisms - (Video)

Can We (Literally) Make It In Space? - (Video)

3-D Printing Stainless Steel With Giant Robot Arms - (Video)

How To 3-D Print Yourself! - (Video)

The First 3D-Printed Residential House - (Video)

Tanks Of Gel Make 3-D Printing Fast And Easy - (Video)

Five Robots That Are Changing Everything - (Video)

The First Totally Soft 3-D Printed Artificial Heart - (Video)

DLP Projector Stereolithography 3-D Printer - (Video)

Can We Perform Surgery In Space? - (Video)

Do Everlasting Batteries Already Exist? - (Video)

3-D Printed Electronics And Cells Printed Directly On Skin - (Photo)

A Printable, Flexible, Organic Solar Cell - (Video)

We Can Now 3-D Print In Suspended Gravity! - (Video)

A New Bionic Arm That Can Grow With You - (Video)

Magnets Control These 3-D Printed Robots - (Video)

Bionic Prosthetics Are Redefining The Future Of Humanity - (Video)